Background/purpose: The epidemic of overweight and obesity is one of the most significant problems facing the United States (U.S.) healthcare system today. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines overweight and obesity using body mass index (BMI), which is the most widely used way to evaluate the degree of overweight.
Design/methods: Using rigorous literature review and observational studies, controlled trials, and focus groups, a clinical practice guideline was developed and updated in 2020 in collaboration with the Department of Defense (DoD) and Veteran Affairs (VA) focusing on active duty military and veteran populations. Additional data on general population statistics concentrating on demographics, disease management, and preventive services was also targeted.
Evaluation: The grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of the evidence base and assign a strength for each recommendation found in the literature. Data was analyzed using Excel. Descriptive statistics performed included frequencies and mean scores.
Findings/discussion: The evidence links overweight and obesity with an increased risk of chronic health conditions and reduced quality of life (QoL), as well as earlier mortality, particularly among those with class II and class III obesity. Overweight and obesity are associated with increased prevalence and worsening of several obesity-associated conditions, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension (HTN), dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, osteoarthritis, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). High BMI is also associated with elevated risk for at least 17 different cancers. Twelve training tools for providers and patients were also revamped.
Conclusion: By monitoring HEDIS measures and utilizing the current clinical practical guideline with a standardized algorithm and associated training tools for providers and patients, obesity can decrease. Both observational studies and controlled trials in populations with specific chronic conditions have demonstrated that a 5% weight loss produces also clinically significant improvements in these conditions. In addition to traditional clinical and biomedical monitoring, specific behavioral strategies featured in comprehensive lifestyle Interventions have also proven helpful.
Learning Outcome: After completing this learning activity, the participant will be able to assess innovations being used by other professionals in the specialty and evaluate the potential of implementing the improvements into practice.
DNP, RN-BC, CNE, CLSSBB,
Director of Client Services,
KG Information Technology and Engineering